Skip Ribbon Commands
Skip to main content
Navigate Up
Sign In

Key Resources

For more information on the Economics and Planning Team's areas of study, please refer to the publications and websites below.

Spatial Analysis and Land-Use Trade-Offs

Spatial analysis and decision support

Ananda, Jayanath and G. Herath.  A critical review of multi-criteria decision making methods with special reference to forest management and planning.  Ecological Economics 68 (2009) 2535–2548


Hill, Michael J., R. Braaten, S.M. Veitch, B. G.  Lees, and S.Sharma (2005)

Multi-criteria decision analysis in spatial decision support: the ASSESS analytic hierarchy process and the role of quantitative methods and spatially explicit analysis. Environmental Modelling & Software, Volume 20(7):  955-976

Incorporating costs and benefits to understand trade-offs

Polasky, Stephen E. Nelson, J. Camm, B. Csuti, P. Fackler, E. Lonsdorf, C. Montgomery, D. White, J. Arthur, B. Garber-Yonts, R. Haight, J. Kagan, A. Starfield, C. Tobalske. (2008) Where to put things? Spatial land management to sustain biodiversity and economic returns.  Biological Conservation.  141(6): 1505-1524.


Naidoo R, Ricketts TH, 2006 Mapping the Economic Costs and Benefits of Conservation. PLoS Biol 4(11): e360. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040360.


Bateman IJ, Lovett AA, Brainard JS (2003) Applied environmental economics: A GIS approach to cost-benefit analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 335 p.

Conservation Finance

Gutman, P. and S. Davidson. (2008).  A Review of Innovative International Financial Mechanisms for Biodiversity Conservation with a Special Focus on the International Financing of Developing Countries’ Protected Areas.  WWF-MPO.

Conservation Finance Alliance (CFA). 2008. Rapid Review of Conservation Trust Funds.

Prepared for the CFA Working Group on Environmental Funds by Barry Spergel and Philippe Taïeb.

Conservation Agreements

Ferraro, Paul and A. Kiss.  (2002) Direct Payments to Conserve Biodiversity.  Science 298:  1718-1719.

Milne, Sarah and E. Niesten. (2009). Direct Payments for Biodiversity Conservation in Developing Countries:  Practical Insights for Design and Implementation.  International Journal of Conservation 1-12.

Protected Area Costs and Benefits

Balmford, Andrew and T. Whitten. (2003) Who should pay for tropical conservation, and how could the costs be met?  Oryx 37(2): 238–250.

Andam, Kwaw, P. Ferraro, M. Holland and G.Sanchez-Azofeifa.  (2008)  Measuring the social impacts of protected areas An impact evaluation approach.

Coad, L., Campbell, A., Miles, L., Humphries, K. (2008). The Costs and Benefits of Protected Areas for Local Livelihoods: a review of the current literature. Working Paper. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, U.K.

Economic Valuation and Natural Capital


Constanza, Robert, R. d’Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farberk, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R. O’Neill, J. Paruelo, R. Raskin, P. Sutton and M. van den   Belt.  (1997) The Value of the world’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capitol. Nature:    387(253-260).


Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005.  Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis.  Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Dasgupta, Partha and S. N. Seo. (2008) Natural capital and economic growth. In:Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment.  


Hamilton, Kirk.  (2006)  Where is the Wealth of Nations?  Measuring Capital for the 21st Century.  The World Bank.  Washington, D.C.

Useful websites:
Ecosystem Valuation:
UNEP GEI Initiative:

Value Chain Approach

Porter, M.E (1985). Competitive Advantage. New York, The Free Press.

Kaplinsky, R and M. Morris (2001). A Handbook for Value Chain Research. Brighton, United Kingdom, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.

Useful website:

USAID value chain Wiki:

Understanding the Carbon Market

Stern, Nicholas (2007) The Economics of Climate Change:  The Stern Review. Cambridge, UK:  Cambridge University Press.


Angelsen, Arild, S. Brown, C. Loisel, L. Peskett, C. Streck and D. Zarin (2009) Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD):  An Options Assessment Report.  Meridian Institute, Washington, D.C.


Parker, C. A. Mitchell, M. Trivedi, N. Mardas.. (2009) The Little REDD+ Book.


Payment for Ecosystem Services



Wunder, Sven, S. Engel and S. Pagiola.  (2008) Taking stock: A comparative analysis of payments for environmental services programs in developed and developing countries   Ecological Economics:  65(4) 834 – 852.

Pagiola, S., and G. Platais. 2007. Payments for Environmental Services: From Theory to Practice. Washington: World Bank.


Scherr, Sara, A.White and A. Khare. (2004) For Services Rendered The current status and future potential of markets for the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. International Tropical Timber Organization: Technical Series No 21.


Practical information for designing a PES Scheme:

A PES Framework has been developed by the Economics and Planning Team and can soon be found on the online training page at:


Forest Trends and The Katoomba group.  (2008) Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started A Primer. 

Useful websites:






CI’s blog provides up-to-date information on our projects around the world:


The following blogs offer timely and relevant insight into issues surrounding humans and their environment.  Please note that the opinions expressed in the external links are not necessarily those of Conservation International.

Ecosystem Services:

Detailed analyses and short comments on current events and trends in the science, management and policies of biodiversity and ecosystem services

Environmental Economics:

Economists on Environmental and Natural Resources: News, Opinion, Analysis and Other Stuff


Ecosystems and Poverty:

Analysis to identify challenges to sustainable management of ecosystems to maximize poverty alleviation


Dot Earth – The New York Times:

Observations by a New York Times writer on efforts to balance human needs with the Earth’s limited resources


The Conservation Value Institute:

Reflections on connections between a healthier environment and a healthier economy, healthier people, and a better quality of life

© 2014 Conservation International
| More
Give us your Feedback